How Rocks & Minerals Are Formed
THE EARTH'S CRUST
The whole earth is made of rocks & minerals.
Inside the earth there is a liquid core of molten rock and on the outside there is a hard crust.
If you compare the earth to an egg, the shell on an egg is like the crust on the earth.
The crust is made up of rocks and minerals.
Much of the crust is covered by water, sand, soil and ice.
If you dig deep enough, you will always hit rocks.
Below the loose layer of soil, sand & crumbled
rocks found on Earth is bedrock,
which is a solid rock.
- The Crust
makes up less than 1%
of the Earth’s mass (0.4%)
It is made of oxygen, magnesium aluminum,
silicon calcium, sodium potassium, iron.
There are 8 elements that make up
99% of the Earth’s crust.
The continents are about 35 km thick and the
ocean floors are about 7 lm thick.
- The Mantle
is the solid casing
of the Earth and is about 2900 km thick.
It makes up about 70% of the Earth’s
It is made up of silicon, oxygen, aluminum and iron.
- The Core
is mainly made of iron
and nickel and makes up about 30% of the Earth’s mass (31.5%).
Core is 2200 km thick and is liquid and the Inner core is 1270 km thick and
The rocks you see around you - the mountains, canyons & riverbeds, are
all made of minerals.
A rock is made up of 2 or more minerals.
Think of a
chocolate chip cookie as a rock.
The cookie is made of flour, butter,
sugar & chocolate.
The cookie is like a rock and the flour, butter, sugar
& chocolate are like minerals.
You need minerals to make rocks, but you
don't need rocks to make minerals.
All rocks are made of minerals.
A mineral is composed of the same substance throughout.
If you were to cut a mineral sample, it would look the same throughout.
There are about 3000 different minerals in the world.
Minerals are made of chemicals - either a single chemical or a combination of chemicals.
There are 103 known chemical elements. Minerals are sorted into
Some common examples have been listed for each.
- Native Elements ~
gold, nickel-iron, graphite, diamond
- Halides ~
- Oxides & Hydroxides ~ corundum,
- Nitrates, Carbonates, Borates ~
- Sulfates, Chromates, Molybdates, Tungstates ~
- Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates ~
almandine garnet, topaz, jadeite,
talc, biotite mica
|Crystals are minerals that have had the chance to grow in the shape that they were meant to be.
Just like your DNA determines the colour of your eyes, how tall you will get to be and the shape of your bones,
the chemicals that a mineral is made of determines what shape it gets to be.
We can tell different minerals apart by what crystal shape they are.
Sometimes minerals form in spaces where there is not a lot of room, so they don't have a crystal shape.
When there is just a big hunk of a mineral, it is called a
If there is a definite shape with easy to see flat sides, it is called a mineral
Most of the earth's crystals were formed millions of years ago.
Crystals form when the liquid rock from inside the earth cool and harden.
Sometimes crystals form when liquids underground find their way into cracks and slowly deposit minerals.
Most mineral crystals take thousands of years to "grow" but some like salt (halite)
can form so quickly that you can watch them grow at home!
Some people think of crystals as clear pretty rocks that are used for jewelry.
Amethyst is a very common quartz crystal.
Crystals do not have to be clear, but those are the kinds you will usually see in the stores.
When rocks break down into smaller & smaller pieces, they turn into sand.
If you look at the sand under a microscope, you will see that sand is made up of
the same minerals as the rocks that the sand came from.
When plants start to sprout up in sand, it is turning from being just small bits of rock to being soil.
For a good description of the importance of sand and
How Sand Is Made,
Soil is very important to life on earth. It supports plant life. We could not live without plants.
Soil is made up of sand and decomposing plants and animals.
Soil has many names including:
clay, silt, mud, dirt, topsoil, dust, potting soil and humus
Rocks are constantly being formed, worn down and then formed again.
This is known as the
It is like the water cycle but it takes a lot longer.
It takes thousands and millions of years for rocks to change.
Rocks are divided into 3 Types. They are classified by how they were formed.
Some good sites that help explain this are:
Igneous means made from fire or heat.
When volcanoes erupt and the liquid rock comes up to the earth's surface, then new igneous rock is made.
When the rock is liquid & inside the earth, it is called
When the magma gets hard inside the crust, it turns into
Most mountains are made of granite. It cools very slowly and is very hard.
When the magma gets up to the surface and flows out, like what happens when a volcano erupts,
then the liquid is called lava.
Lava flows down the sides of the volcano.
When it cools & turns hard it is called
lava rock or
pumice - depending on what it looks like.
- Igneous rocks form when molten lava (magma)
cools and turn to solid rock.
The magma comes from the Earth’s core which
is molten rock .
The core makes up about 30% of the Total Earth Mass (31.5%)
- Obsidian is nature’s glass. It forms when
lava cools quickly on the surface. It is glassy and smooth.
- Pumice is full of air pockets that
were trapped when the lava cooled when it frothed out onto the
It is the only rock that floats.
- There are
5 kinds of igneous rocks, depending
on the mix of minerals in the rocks.
contains quartz, feldspar &
- Diorite contains feldspar & one or more
dark mineral. Feldspar is dominant.
- Gabbro contains feldspar & one or more
dark mineral. The dark minerals are dominant.
contains iron and is black or
- Pegmatite is a coarse-grained granite with
large crystals of quartz, feldspar and mica.
To learn more about igneous rocks and how rocks are
formed, take a look at this
When mountains are first formed, they are tall and jagged like the Rocky Mountains on the west coast of North America.
Over time (millions of years) mountains become old mountains like the Appalachian Mountains
on the east coast of Canada and the United States.
When mountains are old, they are rounded and much lower.
What happens in the meantime is that lots of rock gets worn away due to
Rain, freeze/thaw cycle, wind and running water cause the big mountains to crumble a little bit at a time.
Eventually most of the broken bits of the rock end up in the streams & rivers that flow down from the mountains.
These little bits of rock & sand are called sediments.
When the water slows down enough, these sediments settle to the bottom of the lake or oceans they run into.
Over many years, layers of different rock bits settle at the bottom of lakes and oceans.
Think of each layer as a page in a book. One piece of paper is not heavy.
But a stack of telephone books is very heavy & would squish anything that was underneath.
Over time the layers of sand and mud at the bottom of lakes & oceans turned into rocks.
These are called
Some examples of sedimentary rocks are
Sedimentary rocks often have
fossils in them.
Plants & animals that have died get covered up by new layers of sediment and are turned into stone.
Most of the fossils we find are of plants & animals that lived in the sea. They just settled to the bottom.
Other plants & animals died in swamps, marshes or at the edge of lakes.
They were covered with sediments when
the size of the lake got bigger.
When large amounts of plants are deposited in sedimentary rocks, then they turn
This gives us our coal, oil, natural gas and petroleum.
A large sea once covered the central part of Canada and the climate was very tropical.
In time, sedimentary rocks formed there.
That is why we find dinosaur fossils in Alberta and the area is a good source of natural fuels.
- Sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the
Most of the rocks found on the Earth’s surface is
even though sedimentary rocks
only make up less than 5% of all
the rocks that make up Earth.
- When rocks are exposed to the elements
– air, rain, sun, freeze/thaw cycle, plants –
erosion occurs and the
little bits of rock worn away get deposited as sediments.
Over time, these
sediments harden as they get buried by more sediments and turn into
- Sedimentary rocks are usually formed in layers called
- There are 6 main kinds of sedimentary
rocks depending on the appearance of the rock.
- Conglomerate rock has rounded rocks
(pebbles, boulders) cemented together in a matrix.
- Sandstone is a soft stone that is
made when sand grains cement together. Sometimes the sandstone is
deposited in layers of different colored sand.
is clay that has been hardened
and turned into rock. It often breaks apart in large flat sections.
- Limestone is a rock that contains
many fossils and is made of calcium carbonate &/or microscopic shells.
Gypsum, common salt or Epsom salt is
found where sea water precipitates the salt as the water evaporates.
has jagged bits of
rock cemented together in a matrix.
Understanding Erosion & Sedimentary Rocks
by Looking at Lint!
may have a difficult time imagining something solid like rocks wearing
down over time - but everything does. If you take a look in the lint
trap of your dryer, you will see that your clothes are being worn away
as they tumble in the dryer. In fact if there is enough lint - you will
see how these bits have been laid down into layers - just like sediments
at the bottom of the lake. You will see layers of different colors
because the clothes you dried were different - just like you will see
different layers of rocks in sedimentary rocks. What is even more
interesting is that if you scrunch up the lint a bit like in the picture
here, you can see the layers of lint bending - just like the layers of
rock are bent. Look carefully at the rocks in road cuts and you sill see
layers of rocks that have been folded just like the lint in your dryer.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have changed.
The word comes from the Greek "meta" and "morph" which means to change form.
Metamorphic rocks were originally igneous or sedimentary, but due to movement of the earth's crust, were changed.
If you squeeze your hands together very hard, you will feel heat and pressure.
When the earth's crust moves, it causes rocks to get squeezed so hard that the heat causes the rock to change.
Marble is an example of a sedimentary rock that has been changed into a metamorphic rock.
- Metamorphic rocks are the least common of the 3 kinds of rocks.
rocks are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been transformed by great
heat or pressure.
- Foliated metamorphic rocks have layers, or banding.
- Slate is transformed shale. It splits into smooth slabs.
- Schist is the most common metamorphic rock. Mica is the most common
has a streaky look because of alternating layers of minerals.
- Non-foliated metamorphic rocks are not layered.
- Marble is transformed limestone.
is very hard.
Erosion is a
key part of the Rock Cycle.
It is responsible for forming much of the
interesting landscape that is around us.
It is also a major problem as
people live in areas in large numbers and get used to the environment being in a
certain way. People can do things to increase erosion or slow it down.
happens mainly as a result of weathering – the effect of water, temperature
and wind on the landscape.
Water causes much erosion.
When it falls as acid rain, it
can dissolve rocks that are sensitive to acid.
Marble & limestone weather
when exposed to the rain.
When the rain falls very heavily, as in monsoons, then
flooding can happen.
Rivers with a lot or rushing water can cause mud slides and
erode river banks.
The action of waves on
a beach causes much erosion.
pound on the rocks & over time, cliffs crumble.
That is why you will
find sand & little pebbles on beaches.
Rushing water, like what you find in
rivers that move quickly in the mountains or strong waves
on the shores of
oceans, roll rocks around.
This causes the sharp edges of the rocks
knocked off & that is why river rocks are so smooth & beach pebbles look
chemicals in the air
combine with precipitation
When it rains it dissolves certain minerals
sensitive to acid.
Leaching by ground water:
water soaks into the soil, picks up chemicals
This allows the water to leach or
dissolve rocks it comes in contact with at bedrock.
action at the beach: the waves
Rocks get ground down by the sand particles already
on the beach, rocks smash against each other & break.
rocks get picked
up & carried when water runs swiftly
By bouncing along a river &
smashing into other rocks, the sharp edges get knocked off.
large sheets of ice
pick up large rocks, scrape bedrock
Rocks tumble in under-glacier rivers when glaciers melt.
Precipitation / Floods:
rain can cause floods which move & break rocks
Broken glass is tumbled on the beach and worn
smooth by the action of the waves.
Broken bits of shale tumble to the bottom of
hills and river banks. Then the are washed away and tumbled by waves
and water. When they are deposited at the side of rivers and on the
beach, they are smooth. This is caused by erosion.
The freeze / thaw cycle causes mountains to crumble over time
and large rocks to break
down into little rocks.
When water gets into cracks
in the rocks, this water expands during the freeze cycle,
making the cracks
Then when the cracks fill up with water in the thaw period.
to go deeper into the rock which will make the rocks split apart
they freeze again. The power of frozen
water expanding can be seen when you
a glass bottle filled with liquid in the freezer.
Wind, when it carries bits of sand and grit, can blast away
layers of rocks.
The wind can easily pick up
little bits of sand and then
sandblast the rocks that are in the wind's way.
Sometimes only the soft layers
the rock are eroded, leaving interesting shapes.
This kind of erosion usually
only happens in very dry,
desert like areas.
causes for rocks to
break down & erode:
hard / tough mineral is:
softer, more friable rocks and minerals break up easily
nutrients from the soil, seek out certain minerals like potash,
fertilizer, small roots go in cracks & break up mineral or rock when the root
rocks tumbling down
from a cliff or steep mountainside cause rocks to break up
certain soils have
chemicals in them that react with the chemical make up of
Photo of what damage erosion does
Problems with erosion
A good explanation of erosion
Erosion also makes
|Gemstones are often what people mean when they talk about
There are many gemstones and most are used for jewelry or
The are minerals that are usually transparent and have been cut and
Some gemstones look similar to what the mineral looks like when found
in nature and others are very different.
Few minerals found in nature are suitable to use unaltered in jewelry.
exception is the "Herkimer Diamond" which forms in vugs of gray rock
and are found near Herkimer, New York.
These are not real diamonds - they are
quartz crystals that look like they have been cut & polished like a diamond.
To see some gems, look at
Most people are familiar with precious & semi-precious gemstones because of
the popularity of birthstones.
They are as follows:
||Modern (as of 1912 USA)
||Yellow Topaz, Citrine
||Blue Topaz, Turquoise
||Zircon, Turquoise, Lapis Lazuli